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Innovator Awards Semi-Finalist Team: Geisinger Health’s Unified Data Architecture Push

February 9, 2017
by Mark Hagland
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Geisinger’s initiative is putting it in the absolute front ranks in U.S. healthcare in terms of data infrastructure

Very exciting developments have been taking place recently at the Danville, Pennsylvania-based Geisinger Health System, an integrated health system long renowned for its innovations in many operational areas. Among the many exciting developments of late has been the push on the part of senior leaders at Geisinger to develop and implement an enterprise-wide unified data architecture (UDA), something that for most patient care organizations nationwide remains futuristic—yet is happening now at Geisinger.

For the accomplishment of the development a unified data architecture, the editors of Healthcare Informatics have named Geisinger Health as a semi-finalist winner in the 2017 Healthcare Informatics Innovator Awards Program.

At Geisinger, senior vice president and CIO John Kravitz, Bipin Karunakaran, the vice president in charge of data management, and Joseph Scopelliti, IT director, data management, have been helping to lead their colleagues forward in moving to leverage data and analytics. And, as large numbers of professionals at Geisinger move forward to leverage data for many, many purposes, it has become clearer and clearer over time that a very broad-based and unified data architecture will be needed in order to service the broadly cresting wave of needs for data and analytics. Thus, Kravitz, Karunakaran, Scopelliti, and other healthcare IT leaders at Geisinger, have come to the conclusion within two years that the organization would need to rework its data infrastructure to support is groundbreaking work in population health management, care management, clinical transformation, and other key areas.

As Scopelliti wrote in his team’s Innovator Awards submission, “The project was to create a Unified Data Architecture (UDA), which integrates all of the analytic platforms at Geisinger Health System. The key component of the UDA would be the creation of the Big Data (Hadoop) platform. This platform was the first phase of the project. In a one-year timeframe, the team established a big-data platform, based on Hadoop and other open-source components. In this first year, we have developed code for a source ingestion pipeline (which pulls in source data, performs the necessary transformations, and loads the data into various views, each of which have specific benefits to the data analysts. We have pulled in all of the source data currently populating the data warehouse (EDW), plus additional sources not in the EDW. Additionally, we've done work with the non-discrete data (using the NLP capabilities of Hadoop), and now can analyze the thyroid and pulmonary clinic notes. Further, we've decided that all new development should be done on the big data platform (instead of the EDW) wherever possible; case in point being the work we did on Hadoop for BPCI (Bundled Payments Care Initiative).”

Scopelliti added in his team’s submission that “Geisinger has taken a bold step with this project, even the first phase (building out the big data platform), as we plan to deviate from industry standard and the common opinion that Big Data should augment the EDW, not replace it. We are on our way to proving that we CAN replace the EDW. By running analytics from our Hadoop infrastructure, we have all of the benefits of distributed computing, plus the additional benefits of late binding and the ability to deal with non-discrete data, such as we find in clinic notes. I have included a presentation we recently did at the Healthcare Data and Analytics Association conference, which gives more background on the work we did, and benefits achieved.”


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Joseph Scopelliti

Scopelliti spoke recently to HCI Editor-in-Chief Mark Hagland regarding Geisinger’s unified data architecture initiative. Below are excerpts from that interview.

How did your unified data architecture initiative begin?

Geisinger has a long history of analytics. There are a couple of organizations in the country like Intermountain and Geisinger, that have been doing this for a long time. And honestly, the start of it was 1995-1996, when we implemented our Epic EHR. And ten years later, leadership said, we’ve got all this clinical data, we need a data warehouse. So in 2008, we went live with the first iteration of our EDW—we called it CDIS—the Clinical Decision Intelligence System. The beauty of this—there are a couple of things. Number one, we pulled in not only EHR data, but financial data, claims data, because we have a health plan, and other types of data as well.

In the past, if data analysts wanted to do some research or analysis, they would have to request research from the data team. Now, all of a sudden, with the data warehouse, they could do this themselves, and data analytics exploded, in a good way. And IBM came in and helped us with this. And we ran with that until 2012. And then we decided that we needed a different data warehouse, so we moved to a TeraData data warehouse with stronger computing capability. And we’re still running that. We have thousands of reports and dashboards that are running on CDIS.

So last year, it was decided by executive leadership that we needed to move beyond the CDIS data warehouse, to a unified data architecture. And how I see the UDA is that it’s an integration of all of our key data platforms. So for example, we’re doing some work with Cerner on population health, via their HealthyIntent platform. And Epic is going to be coming out with this EDW of their own—they keep changing its name. The point is that, we’re tying all of our key analytics platforms together. But one major component of this UDA is this new data platform based on Hadoop.

It was excellent meeting with John Kravitz, Bipin Karunakaran, and other members of your IT team in Danville last summer, and to hear about the progress that you had already made by that time, on your UDA initiative.

Yes, last summer, we were putting in 10-12-hour days, six to seven days a week, to create the Hadoop platform. But that platform is a key component of the UDA. I and a colleague did a presentation at a conference a few months back, and we made a statement. Most people in healthcare see a big data platform as a supplement; they’re very hesitant to put all their eggs into one basket. But we see this as a replacement. We think we can retire the data warehouse, and that the UDA will effectively take its place, with most of the work being on the Hadoop platform. And our goal is to achieve that within 18 months.

How hard is it to move forward at that kind of pace?

Well, it is hard. The first step is setting up the infrastructure of the new Hadoop platform. It’s commodity hardware, so we set up all these servers and all these nodes, and got it functional. Then, you’re taking all the traditional data warehouse sources—roughly 20, including Epic EHR, other clinical data, financial data, claims data—and channel all those sources into the data platform. But the key is that the team wrote a data ingestion pipeline, and they wrote it in Map-Reduce and Java code. And so the idea is that it makes it very accessible—it allows us to ingest new source data very quickly. So now we have a quick way of ingesting data into the Hadoop platform. So you build the hardware infrastructure, set up the underlying code to ingest data—and now, we have the task of migrating all of the existing analytics programs into that infrastructure.

My team’s primary task is the building and maintaining of the hardware and software for this program. And any new development, we’re trying to do in the new platform. One example is our BPCI, Bundled Payments Care Initiative—we’re a part of the federal program for bundled payments. So we did development for that program on the Hadoop platform. We’ve also been doing a lot of work on sepsis on the Hadoop platform; and we’re doing a lot of NLP on it—assessments of thyroid and pulmonary, analyzing clinical notes, on this platform. This is something we couldn’t have done using a traditional data warehouse, which really requires discrete data in rows and columns. In Hadoop, we can use NLP to analyze freetext data. So we’ve broken ground with thyroid and pulmonary conditions, but there’s no limit to this.

What have been the biggest challenges so far in all this work?

Certainly, getting as much work done successfully as we’ve done in such a short time, has been huge. We did a presentation at the Healthcare Data Analytics Conference; it’s really an all-analytics conference. And when we told them what we did, jaws dropped. And that was in the same sentence as our saying, we think we can replace the data warehouse. And we’re kind of beyond that already. So the second big challenge, which still faces us, is converting existing analytics to the new platform, and that’s underway now. And, as with anything, change is difficult for some people.

Also, you’re really trying to move to a self-service mode for the end-users of data, correct?

Yes, exactly. And to do that, we have to take the semantic layer into account. So we’re pushing Tableau right now as a key front-end tool so that end-users can self-service. And we’ve never really had a good data model for this data. End-users were used to working off a particular vendor’s data model, with all its limitations; but we’re creating our own data model. And why that’s so important is that finally, analysts will have the ability to take data that’s already cleansed and governed, and they can really focus on just analytics. And further, when you have a tool like Tableau, you really want to set it on top of model data, to work optimally.

What have been the key lessons learned so far in this work?

First of all, we have to embrace change. This is IT. You can’t keep the same technology forever, or it’s stale. So you have to look at what is the next big thing, and what we can take advantage of for greater efficiency. ROI is very important. And one thing about Hadoop is that it’s open-source, it’s commodity hardware. In other words, we can go to any vendor and buy some HP servers and use those. We don’t have to buy a specific vendor’s appliance that is a combination of hardware and software that is so expensive.

And in the old days, you’d take the data that you have that makes sense with the use cases you have. And we’ve got 30 terabytes of data in our CDI. Now with the Hadoop platform, we’ve got 600 terabytes of data. Now, Hadoop in effect, inherently makes a triple copy of everything, for high availability built in. But we’re up to a capacity of 200 terabytes of usable data.

That’s a lot of data!

Yes, it’s amazing, right? That’s our capacity. And we have a new mindset now: if we need one piece of data, don’t just go for that one piece of data, get it all. If cardiology needs one or two tables of data, we’ll tell cardiology, let’s go for all of your data. So it’s a different mindset as well.

What would you tell your colleagues about the work you and your colleagues have been doing, and how they should understand it, in the context of data architecture work they might be doing?

I would say, keep your eyes on Geisinger. This is our plan—to get rid of our data warehouse in 18 months. So I’m telling colleagues, keep your eyes on Geisinger. I think we’re going to win this. I think we can do it; and we’re happy to share what we’ve done. We have done a lot. It’s been a crazy ride, but it’s also been an exciting one, and we’re making big strides here.

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Have CIOs’ Top Priorities for 2018 Become a Reality?

December 12, 2018
by Rajiv Leventhal, Managing Editor
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In comparing healthcare CIOs’ priorities at the end of 2017 to this current moment, new analysis has found that core clinical IT goals have shifted from focusing on EHR (electronic health record) integration to data analytics.

In December 2017, hospitals CIOs said they planned to mostly focus on EHR integration and mobile adoption and physician buy-in, according to a survey then-conducted by Springfield, Va.-based Spok, a clinical communications solutions company, of College of Healthcare Information Management Executives (CHIME) member CIOs.

The survey from one year ago found that across hospitals, 40 percent of CIO respondents said deploying an enterprise analytics platform is a top priority in 2018. Seventy-one percent of respondents cited integrating with the EHR is a top priority, and 62 percent said physician adoption and buy-in for securing messaging was a top priority in the next 18 months. What’s more, 38 percent said optimizing EHR integration with other hospital systems with a key focus for 2018.

Spok researchers were curious whether their predictions became reality, so they analyzed several industry reports and asked a handful of CIOs to recap their experiences from 2018. The most up-to-date responses revealed that compared to last year when just 40 percent of CIOs said they were deploying an enterprise analytics platform in 2018, harnessing data analytics looks to be a huge priority in 2019: 100 percent of the CIOs reported this as top of mind.

Further comparisons on 2018 predictions to realities included:

  • 62 percent of CIOs predicted 2018 as the year of EHR integration; 75 percent reported they are now integrating patient monitoring data
  • 79 percent said they were selecting and deploying technology primarily for secure messaging; now, 90 percent of hospitals have adopted mobile technology and report that it’s helping improve patient safety and outcomes
  • 54 percent said the top secure messaging challenge was adoption/buy in; now, 51 percent said they now involve clinicians in mobile policy and adoption

What’s more, regarding future predictions, 87 percent of CIOs said they expect to increase spending on cybersecurity in 2019, and in three years from now, 60 percent of respondents expect data to be stored in a hybrid/private cloud.

CIOs also expressed concern regarding big tech companies such as Apple, Amazon and Google disrupting the healthcare market; 70 percent said they were somewhat concerned.

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How One Community Hospital is Leveraging AI to Bolster Its Care Pathways Process

December 6, 2018
by Heather Landi, Associate Editor
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Managing clinical variation continues to be a significant challenge facing most hospitals and health systems today as unwarranted clinical variation often results in higher costs without improvements to patient experience or outcomes.

Like many other hospitals and health systems, Flagler Hospital, a 335-bed community hospital in St. Augustine, Florida, had a board-level mandate to address its unwarranted clinical variation with the goal of improving outcomes and lowering costs, says Michael Sanders, M.D., Flagler Hospital’s chief medical information officer (CMIO).

“Every hospital has been struggling with this for decades, managing clinical variation,” he says, noting that traditional methods of addressing clinical variation management have been inefficient, as developing care pathways, which involves identifying best practices for high-cost procedures, often takes up to six months or even years to develop and implement. “By the time you finish, it’s out of date,” Sanders says. “There wasn’t a good way of doing this, other than picking your spots periodically, doing analysis and trying to make sense of the data.”

What’s more, available analytics software is incapable of correlating all the variables within the clinical, billing, analytics and electronic health record (EHR) databases, he notes.

Another limitation is that care pathways are vulnerable to the biases of the clinicians involved, Sanders says. “In medicine, what we typically do is we’ll have an idea of what we want to study, design a protocol, and then run the trial and collect the data that we think is important and then we try to disprove or prove our hypothesis,” he says.


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Sanders says he was intrigued by advances in machine learning tools and artificial intelligence (AI) platforms capable of applying advanced analytics to identify hidden patterns in data.

Working with Palo Alto, Calif.-based machine intelligence software company Ayasdi, Flagler Hospital initiated a pilot project to use Ayasdi’s clinical variation management application to develop care pathways for both acute and non-acute conditions and then measure adherence to those pathways.

Michael Sanders, M.D.

Flagler targeted their treatment protocols for pneumonia as an initial care process model. “We kicked around the idea of doing sepsis first, because it’s a huge problem throughout the country. We decided to use pneumonia first to get our feet wet and figure out how to use the tool correctly,” he says.

The AI tools from Ayasdi revealed new, improved care pathways for pneumonia after analyzing thousands of patient records from the hospital and identifying the commonalities between those with the best outcomes. The application uses unsupervised machine learning and supervised prediction to optimally align the sequence and timing of care with the goal of optimizing for patient outcomes, cost, readmissions, mortality rate, provider adherence, and other variables.

The hospital quickly implemented the new pneumonia pathway by changing the order set in its Allscripts EHR system. As a result, for the pneumonia care path, Flagler Hospital saved $1,350 per patient and reduced the length of stay (LOS) for these patients by two days, on average. What’s more, the hospital reduced readmission by 7 times—the readmission rate dropped from 2.9 percent to 0.4 percent, hospital officials report. The initial work saved nearly $850,000 in unnecessary costs—the costs were trimmed by eliminating labs, X-rays and other processes that did not add value or resulted in a reduction in the lengths of stay or readmissions.

“Those results are pretty amazing,” Sanders says. “It’s taking our data and showing us what we need to pursue. That’s powerful.”

With the success of the pneumonia care pathway, Flagler Hospital leaders also deployed a new sepsis pathway. The hospital has expanded its plans for using Ayasdi to develop new care pathways, from the original plan of tackling 12 conditions over three years, to now tackling one condition per month. Future plans are to tackle heart failure, total hip replacement, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), hysterectomy and diabetes, among other conditions. Flagler Hospital expects to save at least $20 million from this program in the next three years, according to officials.

Finding the “Goldilocks” group

Strong collaboration between IT and physician teams has been a critical factor in deploying the AI tool and to continue to successfully implement new care pathways, Sanders notes.

The effort to create the first pathway began with the IT staff writing structured query language (SQL) code to extract the necessary data from the hospital’s Allscripts EHR, enterprise data warehouse, surgical, financial and corporate performance systems. This data was brought into the clinical variation management application using the FHIR (Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources) standard.

“That was a major effort, but some of us had been data scientists before we were physicians, and so we parameterized all these calls. The first pneumonia care path was completed in about nine weeks. We’ve turned around and did a second care path, for sepsis, which is much harder, and we’ve done that in two weeks. We’ve finished sepsis and have moved on to total hip and total knee replacements. We have about 18 or 19 care paths that we’re going to be doing over the next 18 months,” he says.

After being fed data of past pneumonia treatments, the software automatically created cohorts of patients who had similar outcomes accompanied by the treatments they received at particular times and in what sequence. The program also calculated the direct variable costs, average lengths of stay, readmission and mortality rates for each of those cohorts, along with the statistical significance of its conclusions. Each group had different comorbidities, such as diabetes, COPD and heart failure, which was factored into the application's calculations. At the push of a button, the application created a care path based on the treatment given to the patients in each cohort.

The findings were then reviewed with the physician IT group, or what Sanders calls the PIT crew, to select what they refer to as the “Goldilocks” cohort. “This is a group of patients that had the combination of low cost, short length of stay, low readmissions and almost zero mortality rate. We then can publish the care path and then monitor adherence to that care path across our physicians,” Sanders says.

The AI application uncovered relationships and patterns that physicians either would not have identified or would have taken much longer to identify, Sanders says. For instance, the analysis revealed that for patients with pneumonia and COPD, beginning nebulizer treatments early in their hospital stays improved outcomes tremendously, hospital leaders report.

The optimal events, sequence, and timing of care were presented to the physician team using an intuitive interface that allowed them to understand exactly why each step, and the timing of the action, was recommended. Upon approval, the team operationalized the new care path by revising the emergency-department and inpatient order sets in the hospital EHR.

Sanders says having the data generated by the AI software is critical to getting physicians on board with the project. “When we deployed the tool for the pneumonia care pathway, our physicians were saying, ‘Oh no, not another tool’,” Sanders says. “I brought in a PIT Crew (physician IT crew) and we went through our data with them. I had physicians in the group going through the analysis and they saw that the data was real. We went into the EMR to make sure the data was in fact valid, and after they realized that, then they began to look at the outcomes, the length of stay, the drop in readmissions and how the costs dropped, and they were on board right away.”

The majority of Flagler physicians are adhering to the new care path, according to reports generated by the AI software's adherence application. The care paths effectively sourced the best practices from the hospital’s best doctors using the hospital’s own patient groups, and that is key, Sanders notes.

“When we had conversations with physicians about the data, some would say, ‘My patient is sicker than yours,’ or ‘I have a different patient population.’ However, we can drill down to the physician’s patients and show the physician where things are. It’s not based on an ivory tower analysis, it’s based on our own data. And, yes, our patients, and our community, are unique—a little older than most, and we have a lot of Europeans here visiting. We have some challenges, but this tool is taking our data and showing us what we need to pursue. That’s pretty powerful.”

He adds, “It’s been amazing to see physicians rally around this. We just never had the tool before that could do this.”

While Flagler Hospital is a small community hospital with fewer resources than academic medical centers or larger health systems—for example, the hospital doesn’t have a dedicated data scientist but rather uses its in-house informatics staff for this project—the hospital is progressive in its use of advanced analytics, according to Sanders.

“We’ve been able to do a lot of querying ourselves, and we have some sepsis predictive models that we’ve created and put into place. We do a lot of real-time monitoring for sepsis and central line-associated bloodstream infections,” he says. “Central line-associated bloodstream infections are a bane for all hospitals. In the past year and a half, since we’ve put in our predictive model, we’ve had zero bloodstream infections, and that’s just unheard of.”

Sanders and his team plan to continue to use the AI tool to analyze new data and adjust the care paths according to new discoveries. As the algorithms find more effective and efficient ways to deliver care that result in better outcomes, Flagler will continue to improve its care paths and measure the adherence of its providers.

There continues to be growing interest, and also some hype, around AI tools, but Sanders notes that AI and machine learning are simply another tool. “Historically, what we’ve done is that we had an idea of what we wanted to do, conducted a clinical trial and then proved or disproved the hypothesis, based on the data that we collected. We have a tool with AI which can basically show us relationships that we didn’t know even existed and answer questions that we didn’t know to ask. I think it’s going to open up a tremendous pathway in medicine for us to both reduce cost, improve care and really take better care of our patients,” he says, adding, “When you can say that to physicians, they are on board. They respond to the data.”


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At RSNA 2018, An Intense Focus on Artificial Intelligence

November 29, 2018
by Mark Hagland, Editor-in-Chief
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Artificial intelligence solutions—and discussions—were everywhere at RSNA 2018 this week

Artificial intelligence solutions—and certainly, the promotion of such solutions—were everywhere this year at the RSNA Conference, held this week at Chicago’s vast McCormick Place, where nearly 49,000 attendees attended clinical education sessions, viewed nearly 700 vendor exhibits. And AI and machine learning promotions, and discussions were everywhere.

Scanning the exhibit floor on Monday, Glenn Galloway, CIO of the Center for Diagnostic Imaging, an ambulatory imaging center in the Minneapolis suburb of St. Louis Park, Minn., noted that “There’s a lot of focus on AI this year. We’re still trying to figure out exactly what it is; I think a lot of people are doing the same, with AI.” In terms of whether what’s being pitched is authentic solutions, vaporware, or something in between, Galloway said, “I think it’s all that. I think there will be some solutions that live and survive. There are some interesting concepts of how to deliver it. We’ve been talking to a few folks. But the successful solutions are going to be very focused; not just AI for a lung, but for a lung and some very specific diagnoses, for example.” And what will be most useful? According to Galloway, “Two things: AI for the workflow and the quality. And there’ll be some interesting things for what it will do for the quality and the workflow.”

“Certainly, this is another year where machine learning is absolutely dominating the conversation,” said James Whitfill, M.D., CMO at Innovation Care Partners in Scottsdale, Ariz., on Monday. “In radiology, we continue to be aware of how the hype of machine learning is giving way to the reality; that it’s not a wholesale replacement of physicians. There have already been tremendous advances in, for example, interpreting chest x-rays; some of the work that Stanford’s done. They’ve got algorithms that can diagnose 15 different pathological findings. So there is true material advancement taking place.”

Meanwhile, Dr. Whitfill said, “At the same time, people are realizing that coming up with the algorithm is one piece, but that there are surprising complications. So you develop an algorithm on Siemens equipment, but when you to Fuji, the algorithm fails—it no longer reliably identifies pathology, because it turns out you have to train the algorithm not just on examples form just one manufacturer, but form lots of manufacturers. We continue to find that these algorithms are not as consistent as identifying yourself on Facebook, for example. It’s turning out that radiology is way more complex. We take images on lots of different machines. So huge strides are being made,” he said. “But it’s very clear that human and machine learning together will create the breakthroughs. We talk about physician burnout, and even physicians leaving. I think that machine learning offers a good chance of removing a lot of the drudgery in healthcare. If we can automate some processes, then it will free up our time for quality judgment, and also to spend time talking to patients, not just staring at the screen.”


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Looking at the hype cycle around AI

Of course, inevitably, there was talk around the talk of the hype cycle involving artificial intelligence. One of those engaging in that discussion was Paul Chang, M.D.., a practicing radiologist and medical director of enterprise imaging at the University of Chicago. Dr. Chang gave a presentation on Tuesday about AI. According a report by Michael Walter in Radiology Business, Dr. Chang said, “AI is not new or spooky. It’s been around for decades. So why the hype?” He described computer-aided detection (CAD) as a form of artificial intelligence, one that radiologists have been making use of for years.

Meanwhile, with regard to the new form of AI, and the inevitable hype cycle around emerging technologies, Dr. Chang said during his presentation that “When you’re going up the ride, you get excited. But then right at the top, before you are about to go down, you have that moment of clarity—‘What am I getting myself into?’—and that’s where we are now. We are upon that crest of magical hype and we are about to get the trench of disillusionment.” Still, he told his audience, “It is worth the rollercoaster of hype. But I’m here to tell you that it’s going to take longer than you think.”

So, which artificial intelligence-based solutions will end up going the distance? On a certain level, the answer to that question is simple, said Joe Marion, a principal in the Waukesha, Wis.-based Healthcare Integration Strategies LLC, and one of the imaging informatics industry’s most respected observers. “I think it’s going to be the value of the product,” said Marion, who has participated in 42 RSNA conferences; “and also the extent to which the vendors will make their products flexible in terms of being interfaced with others, so there’s this integration aspect, folding into vendor A, vendor B, vendor C, etc. So for a third party, the more they reach out and create relationships, the more successful they’ll be. A lot of it will come down to clinical value, though. Watson has had problems in that people have said, it’s great, but where’s the clinical value? So the ones that succeed will be the ones that find the most clinical value.”

Still, Marion noted, even the concept of AI, as applied to imaging informatics, remains an area with some areas lacking in clarity. “The reality, he said, “is that I think it means different things to different people. The difference between last year and this year is that some things are coming to fruition; it’s more real. And so some vendors are offering viable solutions. The message I’m hearing from vendors this year is, I have this platform, and if a third party wants to develop an application or I develop an application, or even an academic institution develops a solution, I can run it on my platform. They’re trying to become as vendor-agnostic as possible.”

Marion expressed surprise at the seemingly all-encompassing focus on artificial intelligence this year, given the steady march towards value-based healthcare-driven mandates. “Outside of one vendor, I’m not really seeing a whole lot of emphasis this year on value-based care; that’s disappointing,” Marion said. “I don’t know whether people don’t get it or not about value-based care, but the vendors are clearly more focused on AI right now.”

Might next year prove to be different? Yes, absolutely, especially given the coming mandates coming out of the Protecting Access to Medicare Act (PAMA), which will require referring providers to consult appropriate use criteria (AUC) prior to ordering advanced diagnostic imaging services—CT, MR, nuclear medicine and PET—for Medicare patients. The federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) will progress with a phased rollout of the CDS mandate, as the American College of Radiology (ACR) explains on its website, with voluntary reporting of the use of AUC taking place until December 2019, and mandatory reporting beginning in January 2020.

But for now, this certainly was the year of the artificial intelligence focus at the RSNA Conference. Only time will tell how that focus plays out in the imaging and imaging informatics vendor space within the coming 12 months, before RSNA 2019 kicks off one year from now, at the conference’s perennial location, McCormick Place.



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