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Healthcare Association Advocacy Leaders Offer Perspectives on CMS’s MACRA Timeline Challenges

July 20, 2016
by Mark Hagland
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Advocacy leaders urge healthcare and healthcare IT leaders to prepare now to help physicians meet the anticipated MACRA reporting requirements

The statement made by Acting Administrator of the federal Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Andy Slavitt last week, healthcare association advocacy leaders shared with Healthcare Informatics their perspectives on what might happen next, as some elements mandated by the MACRA (Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015) come closer to being put into place. As HCI Managing Editor Rajiv Leventhal noted in his July 13 report, Slavitt made a statement during the U.S. Senate Finance Committee’s hearing that day in which he hinted broadly that there might be flexibility around the January 1, 2017 start date that otherwise was expected to be set into motion around physician reporting requirements.

As Leventhal noted in his report, “The Congressional hearing, led by Committee Chairman Orrin Hatch (R-UT) and Ranking Member Ron Wyden (D-OR), set out to give Slavitt a chance to describe MACRA’s implementation efforts and give members of Congress a chance to address issues and concerns towards the CMS head. Hatch opened his statement by noting that physicians are greatly concerned about the timeline of MACRA, which as currently scheduled, calls for implementation to begin in 2017 with bonuses being paid out to eligible Medicare doctors in 2019. Indeed, as comments from healthcare stakeholders poured in since the release of the proposed MACRA rule in April, various physician groups have called for a host of greater flexibilities, many which center around pushing the start date back at least six months.”

During the course of the hearing, Leventhal noted, “Hatch stated that the MACRA law gives CMS the flexibility to move the start date of the reporting period back.” He quoted Sen. Hatch as saying that “Physicians are concerned about the timeline. If CMS releases the final rules around Nov. 1, that only leaves two months for them to prepare. It’s a legit concern.” In response, our report noted, “Slavitt agreed with Hatch, responding that the program needs to be launched ‘so it begins on the right foot, so every physician in the country feels that they are set up for success.’ He added, ‘There has been significant feedback received here, and we remain open to options including alternative start dates, looking at shorter [reporting] periods used, and other ways physicians could get help and experience before the program hits them.’”

Complexities around timing

There are a number of complexities inherent in the current situation in this moment, says Leslie Kriegstein, vice president of congressional affairs at the Ann Arbor, Mich.-based College of Healthcare Information Management Executives (CHIME). To begin with, the Washington, D.C.-based Kriegstein says, the timing of the release of the final rule for this implementation is expected to be sometime in October, or at the very latest, early November; and that would give physicians and organizations with physicians very little time to put into place the information technology and data and reporting systems needed to ensure that they could begin reporting a broad array of data points to CMS beginning on Jan. 1, as was written into the MACRA legislation.

Fundamentally, Kriegstein says, there are two essential possibilities here. “They could change either the start date or the reporting period. The only reporting period proposed explicitly in the legislation was for clinical practice improvement, which carried a 90-day proposal” in the enabling legislation, she notes. Kriegstein who was present at the Finance Committee hearing last week, said, “Acting Administrator Slavitt said, we want to launch this program on the right foot, for clinician success, which might therefore involve alternate start dates, or shortened reporting periods.” Asked what she thinks might happen, she says, “I could see a scenario where CMS clearly has the propensity to leverage shortened reporting periods for program years they think will be challenging, so I could see that as probably the greatest possibility. Last month, the AMA [American Medical Association] came out asking for a delay; some other groups asked for a July 1 start date.”

Asked whether in practice there is a difference between postponing the start date or shortening the reporting period in 2017, Kriegstein says, “In practice, they end up being the same thing. For example, per meaningful use, or in the hospital quality reporting program, they give you quarters to pick from. So it’s possible that they could change the reporting period to 90 days or 120 days, with some flexibility around the length or the start date.”

Jeffrey Smith, vice president of public policy at the Bethesda, Md.-based American Medical Informatics Associations (AMIA), says, “CMS doesn’t usually telegraph what they’re going to do in relation to timing, until the last minute. If you look at meaningful use and the 90-day reporting period, they waited until the last moment to make that announcement,” he says. “I think that Andy Slavitt’s words were really encouraging to providers who felt that this would be a really heavy lift for individuals and organizations. And frankly, I haven’t spoken to any individual or organization that thought that January 1 would be a realistic timeframe.”

Given all that, Smith says, “I suspect that there will be a final rule in October or November, but that final rule might be an interim final rule, which would essentially be a signal to the market saying, here’s what that final rule will look like, but here are also some changes we’ll make. And that seems to me to be a sensible way to do this. It might be put off to July 1. That seems reasonable. I think everybody knows that more time is needed, and CMS probably heard that from almost every organization in the NPRM process.” Further, he says, “It's been an incredibly tight time since the legislation was passed. CMS has been working its tail off on this; it’s just the way the legislation passed and was written.”

Blair Childs, senior vice president of public affairs at the Charlotte-based Premier Inc., definitely sees the complexity in this situation as well. “We’ve been working with our members for some time to understand what’s involved,” says the Washington, D.C.-based Childs. “But it’s the smaller physician practices that are the concern. What’s confusing is that a lot of people are talking about is a delay for MACRA, and what’s being considered is not really a delay, it’s just a pushing back of the start date for reporting. And the issue might be with the truncated period for 2017, it will be necessary to make sure that they have sufficient data, enough procedures done, so that the measures are accurate enough,” referring to the fact that CMS officials will use the data reported in 2017 to establish payment changes for Medicare-reimbursed physicians beginning 2018.” As a result, he says, “What they probably will do is to reduce the reporting year by some period of time, such as 3 or 6 months, and thereby give people more time to get themselves prepared for the change.”

Did Acting Administrator Slavitt’s comments on July 13 during the Senate Finance Committee hearing represent a major shift in CMS’s intentions towards healthcare providers? “I was personally surprised that he said what he said in a Senate Finance hearing, but I was also encouraged by it,” says AMIA’s Smith. “It shows that he’s trying to be responsive. CMS has been showing itself to be more responsive recently,” he adds, saying that he sees a number of statements and actions on the part of senior CMS officials in the past year or so as pointing to a more flexible stance overall in terms of the agency’s interactions with physicians and hospitals.

CHIME’s Kriegstein definitely sees changes at CMS. “I’m not surprised” by Slavitt’s comments during the Senate Finance Committee hearing,” she says. “He’s definitely been a breath of fresh air. He’s stressed simplicity and flexibility since he took over the job. And the fact that they’re willing to take a step back and make sure this program launches successfully, is significant.”

Kriegstein says she sees CMS officials becoming more flexible generally under Slavitt’s management. “They just made some changes in the meaningful program when they granted the 90-day reporting, so looking through the lens of their technology programs, and especially meaningful use, there has been an appetite for flexibility, and making sure we keep as many hospitals and physicians involved as possible,” she says.

The time to prepare is now

Regardless of the ultimate specifics involved for physicians to report data to the Medicare program, either through the MIPS (Merit-based Incentive Payment System) program, or through alternative payment models (APMs), all the advocacy leaders interviewed for this article agree that the CIOs, CMIOs, and other healthcare IT leaders in medical groups, hospitals, and health systems should be working now to prepare for changes that will impact all their Medicare-participating physicians.

“CMS’s message is, we’re not changing a lot, especially with the assumption that most doctors are going to be on the MIPS side,” says CHIME’s Kriegstein. “They’re already acknowledging that very few alternative payment models, will be ready to go right away—there’s a high bar to participate in those, and you have to use certified technology—so CMS is assuming that most eligible physicians will be under MIPS for the first few years. We know that quality outcomes, resource use, and meaningful use, will all be emphasized” under MIPS. “So staying the course on existing programs and educating staff on what’s available, and beginning those conversations with your vendors, are all going to be important” in the next several months. What’s more, she says, “The whole CPIA bucket—clinical practice improvement activities—there will be a lot of technological requirements inherent in that. There are some non-tech options, but there are also a lot of tech options, to improve your practice. And that’s where there’s a lot of uncertainty involved in what the vendor and tech choices will be,” she says. “So beginning chose conversations will be imperative.”

“I think everybody needs to be thinking about what your measurement strategy is across the continuum; and that’s a multi-faceted set of considerations, as you know,” says Premier’s Childs, who says that medical group, hospital and health system leaders, including IT leaders, will inevitably be drawn fully into all the reporting work required of their physicians by the Medicare program, because of physicians’ reliance on them and their broader organizations in these areas.

Childs says he was aware of the recent Deloitte Center for Health Solutions’ survey of practicing physicians that found that fully 50 percent of non-pediatric physicians have never even heard of MACRA, and only 32 percent recognize the name “MACRA.” Indeed, as HCI’s July 14 report on the Deloitte survey noted, only 21 percent of self-employed physicians, and only 9 percent of employed physicians, reported that they were “somewhat familiar” with MACRA, despite its impending impact on their practices—and on their Medicare revenues.

“Yes, that’s correct,” Childs says, in response to a comment that practicing physicians remain woefully unaware of the full impact that the provisions of the MACRA legislation will have on their practices. “We’ve been out talking to doctors since it passed. And I’ve just been shocked at how little people know about it.”

It’s very clear where policymakers and federal healthcare officials are headed overall, in any case, Childs emphasizes. “We’ve been saying this for years. We predicted mandatory bundled payments in 2010, and it happened in 2016. So we’ve actually kind of nailed all the steps” along the way to the present moment in federal reimbursement policy. “It certainly is moving, and there’s kind of no question about it. And irrespective of the administration, we’re on this path, and it’s going to continue. There are so many questions and issues that healthcare and healthcare IT leaders need to begin tackling: what are they going to report on, how are they going to do it, are their data and information systems organized as they should be, and do they want to go into alternative payment models? The assessment processes are very important for people to undertake.”

AMIA’s Smith says that CIOs, CMIOs, and other healthcare IT leaders should absolutely be “planning for this. I think the final rule will look almost exactly like the NPRM,” he says, referring to the proposed rule, or notice of proposed rulemaking. “And they should be planning for January 1. It would be foolish to think a delay is in the bag. So if you’re a CIO or CMIO, you should plan for this to be full-speed ahead.”

Healthcare Informatics will continue to update readers on this story as new developments take place.


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CMS: 93% of Clinicians Get Positive Payment Adjustments for MIPS Year 1

November 8, 2018
by Rajiv Leventhal, Managing Editor
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Ninety-three percent of MIPS (Merit-based Incentive Payment System)-eligible clinicians received a positive payment adjustment for their performance in 2017, and 95 percent overall avoided a negative payment adjustment, according to a CMS (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) announcement today.

The first year of MIPS under MACRA’s Quality Payment Program (QPP) was dubbed by CMS as a “pick your pace year,” which essentially enabled clinicians to avoid payment penalties as long as they submitted at least the minimum amount of quality data. As such, in its announcement, CMS did admit that the overall performance threshold for MIPS was established at a relatively low level of three points, and the availability of “pick your pace” provided participation flexibility through three reporting options for clinicians: “test”, partial year, or full-year reporting.

CMS said that 93 percent of MIPS-eligible clinicians received a positive payment adjustment for their performance in 2017, and 95 percent overall avoided a negative payment adjustment. CMS specifically calculated that approximately 1.06 million MIPS-eligible clinicians in total will receive a MIPS payment adjustment, either positive, neutral, or negative. The payment adjustments for the 2017 program year get reflected in 2019.

Breaking down the 93 percent of participants that received a positive payment adjustment last year, 71 percent earned a positive payment adjustment and an adjustment for exceptional performance, while 22 percent earned a positive payment adjustment only. Meanwhile, just 5 percent of MIPS-eligible clinicians received a negative payment adjustment, and 2 percent received a neutral adjustment (no increase or decrease).

Of the total population, just over one million MIPS-eligible clinicians reported data as either an individual, as a part of a group, or through an Alternative Payment Model (APM), and received a neutral payment adjustment or better. Additionally, under the Advanced APM track, just more than 99,000 eligible clinicians earned Qualifying APM Participant (QP) status, according to the CMS data.

CMS Administrator Seema Verma noted on the first pick-your-pace year of the QPP, “This measured approach allowed more clinicians to successfully participate, which led to many clinicians exceeding the performance threshold and a wider distribution of positive payment adjustments. We expect that the gradual increases in the performance thresholds in future program years will create an evolving distribution of payment adjustments for high performing clinicians who continue to invest in improving quality and outcomes for beneficiaries.”

For 2018, the second year of the QPP, CMS raised the stakes for those participating clinicians. And in the third year of the program, set to start in January 2019, a final rule was just published with year three requirements. Undoubtedly, as time passes, eligible clinicians will be asked for greater participation at higher levels. At the same time, CMS continues to exempt certain clinicians who don’t meet a low-volume Medicare threshold.

Earlier this year, CMS said that 91 percent of all MIPS-eligible clinicians participated in the first year of the QPP, exceeding the agency’s internal goal.

What’s more, from a scoring perspective in 2017, the overall national mean score for MIPS-eligible clinicians was 74.01 points, and the national median was 88.97 points, on a 0 to 100 scale. Further breaking down the mean and median:

  • Clinicians participating in MIPS as individuals or groups (and not through an APM) received a mean score of 65.71 points and a median score of 83.04 points
  • Clinicians participating in MIPS through an APM received a mean score of 87.64 points and a median score of 91.67 points

Additionally, clinicians in small and rural practices who were not in APMs and who chose to participate in MIPS also performed well, CMS noted. On average, MIPS eligible clinicians in rural practices earned a mean score of 63.08 points, while clinicians in small practices received a mean score of 43.46 points.

Said Verma, “While we understand that challenges remain for clinicians in small practices, these results suggest that these clinicians and those in rural practices can successfully participate in the program. With these mean scores, clinicians in small and rural practices would still receive a neutral or positive payment adjustment for the 2017, 2018, and 2019 performance years due to the relatively modest performance thresholds that we have established. We will also continue to directly support these clinicians now and in future years of the program.”

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HHS Secretary Azar: HHS Is Planning New Mandatory Bundled Payment Models

November 8, 2018
by Heather Landi, Associate Editor
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The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) is revisiting mandatory bundled payment models, possibly for radiation oncology and cardiac care, according to Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar, which signals a strong about-face in the Trump Administration’s policy about bundled payment initiatives.

HHS is reexamining the role that mandatory bundled payment models can play in the transition to value-based care, Azar said in a keynote speech at the Patient-Centered Primary Care Collaborative Conference on Thursday. HHS published Azar’s comments.

In the published remarks, Azar said the Trump Administration is revisiting mandatory bundled payments and exploring new voluntary bundled payments as part of the Administration’s goal of paying for outcomes, rather than process.

“We need results, American patients need change, and when we need mandatory models to deliver it, mandatory models are going to see a comeback,” Azar said.

In his speech, Azar said, “Imagine a system where physicians and other providers only had to worry about the outcome, rather than worrying about their staffing ratios and the individual reimbursements for every procedure they do and every drug they prescribe. That kind of payment system would radically reorient power in our healthcare system—away from the federal government and back to those closest to the patient.”

He continued, “One way we can do that is through bundling payments, rather than paying for every individual service. This is an area where you have already seen testing from CMMI for several years now—and I want to let you know today that you are going to see a lot more such ideas in the future.”

Azar highlighted the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI), which, he said, has shown significant savings in several common inpatient episodes, including joint replacement and pneumonia.

During his speech on Thursday, Azar said, “I want to share with all of you for the first time today: We intend to revisit some of the episodic cardiac models that we pulled back, and are actively exploring new and improved episode-based models in other areas, including radiation oncology. We’re also actively looking at ways to build on the lessons and successes of the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement model.

“We’re not going to stop there: We will use all avenues available to us—including mandatory and voluntary episode-based payment models,” he said.

One industry group, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), already has voiced concerns about a mandatory payment model. In a statement issued Thursday afternoon, Laura Thevenot, CEO of ASTRO, made it clear that the organizaiton strongly supports a radiation oncology alternative payment model (RO-APM). "ASTRO has worked for many years to craft a viable payment model that would stabilize payments, drive adherence to nationally-recognized clinical guidelines and improve patient care. ASTRO believes its proposed RO-APM will allow radiation oncologists to participate fully in the transition to value-based care that both improves cancer outcomes and reduces costs."

Thevenot said ASTRO has aggressively pursued adoption of this proposed model with the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI). However, Thevenot said the group has concerns "about the possibility of launching a model that requires mandatory participation from all radiation oncology practices at the outset."

Further, Thevenot said any radiation oncology payment model will represent "a significant departure from the status quo." "Care must be taken to protect access to treatments for all radiation oncology patients and not disadvantage certain types of practices, particularly given the very high fixed costs of running a radiation oncology clinic," Thevenot stated.

Back in January, CMS announced the launch of the voluntary BPCI Advanced model, noting that it “builds on the earlier success of bundled payment models and is an important step in the move away from fee-for-service and towards paying for value.” The BPCI Advanced model includes more than 1,000 participants that are receiving episode-based payments for over 30 clinical areas, Azar said.

“BPCI Advanced is a voluntary model, where potential participants can select whether they want to join. But we’re not going to stick to voluntary models. Real experimentation with episodic bundles requires a willingness to try mandatory models. We know they are the most effective way to know whether these bundles can successfully save money and improve quality,” Azar said.

The Obama Administration introduced mandatory bundled payment for care for heart attacks and for cardiac bypass surgery in July 2016.

In the past, CMS Administrator Seema Verma has said that she does not support making bundled payments mandatory, and former HHS Secretary Tom Price, M.D. had strongly opposed mandatory bundles, going so far as to direct the end of two mandatory bundled payment programs—one existing and one previously announced. In November 2017, CMS finalized a rule, proposed in August 2017, that cancelled mandatory hip fracture and cardiac bundled payment models.

As per that final rule, CMS also scaled back the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement Model (CJR), specifically reducing the number of mandatory geographic areas participating in CJR from 67 areas to 34 areas. And, in an effort to address the unique needs of rural providers, the federal agency also made participation voluntary for all low-volume and rural hospitals participating in the model in all 67 geographic areas.

On Thursday, Azar acknowledged that his statements signaled HHS was reversing course on its previous stance, noting that last year the administration reduced the size of the CJR model and pulled back the other episode payment models, including those on cardiac care, before they could launch.

Azar, who was confirmed as HHS Secretary earlier this year, signaled early on that he diverged from Verma and Price on his views about mandatory bundled payments. During a Senate Finance Committee hearing in January on his nomination for HHS Secretary, he said, on the topic of CMMI [the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation] pilot programs, “I believe that we need to be able to test hypotheses, and if we have to test a hypothesis, I want to be a reliable partner, I want to be collaborative in doing this, I want to be transparent, and follow appropriate procedures; but if to test a hypothesis there around changing our healthcare system, it needs to be mandatory there as opposed to voluntary, then so be it.”

During his speech Thursday, Azar pointed to the Administration’s first mandatory model, which was unveiled two weeks ago, called the International Pricing Index (IPI) Model for payments for Part B drugs. Azar said the model is a “mandatory model that will help address the inequity between what the U.S. and other countries pay for many costly drugs.”

Further, Azar said CMMI also will launch new primary care payment models before the end of the year, with the aim of introducing a spectrum of risk for primary care providers, Azar said.

“Before the end of this year, you will see new payment models coming forth from CMMI that will give primary care physicians more flexibility in how they care for their patients, while offering them significant rewards for successfully keeping them healthy and out of the hospital,” he said.

“Different sizes and types of practices can take on different levels of risk. As many of you know, even smaller practices want to be, and can be, compensated based on their patients’ outcomes,” he said. “We want to incentivize that, with a spectrum of flexibility, too: The more risk you are willing to take on, the less we’re going to micromanage your work.”

Azar also noted HHS’ efforts to examine impediments to care coordination, such as examining the Stark Law, the Anti-Kickback Statute, HIPAA, and 42 CFR Part 2. CMS has already launched and concluded a request for information on the Stark Law, and the Office of the Inspector General has done the same on the Anti-Kickback Statute, he noted.

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Dr. Sanjay Gupta’s Heartening Speech at CHIME18 Should Inspire U.S. Healthcare Leaders

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The story of an Amazonian tribe could serve as a motivational lesson for U.S. healthcare stakeholders

It was inspiring to hear Sanjay Gupta, M.D., the well-known neurosurgeon and medical reporter, give the closing keynote at the College of Healthcare Information Management Executives (CHIME) 2018 Fall CIO Forum in San Diego last week. Dr. Gupta, who serves as associate chief of the neurosurgery service at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, while also best known as CNN's multiple Emmy Award-winning chief medical correspondent, discussed the fascinating balance that he strikes between medicine and media.

“Oftentimes, I see people at their best, and sometimes at their worst. I get to travel the world, where I learn so much, but also teach others. Sometimes the dance between medicine and media can be awkward and emotionally challenging. But almost always, the stories we do have a significant impact,” Gupta told the Fall CIO Forum attendees.

What was perhaps most captivating about Gupta’s speech was when he spoke about visiting a primitive Amazonian tribe that appears to have the best heart health in the world. The Tsimane people of Bolivia do not speak a language, live a simple existence, and are disease-free, explained Gupta. So he went to visit the tribe with the goal to understand its lifestyle and what led to its members having such healthy hearts.  

Sanjay Gupta, M.D.

“I went spearfishing with one [tribe member], who thought he was 84-years-old, but he really didn’t know for sure. His shirt was off, and he was ripped, balancing himself on the canoe, just looking at the water, spearing fish. His eyesight was perfect. The entire indigenous tribe was just like this,” Gupta recalled.

After examining the Tsimane tribe’s diet, Gupta noted it was a hunter-gatherer society, meaning there was nothing technological. “The most mechanical thing I saw was a pulley for the well,” he said. Seventy percent of what they eat is carbohydrates—unrefined and unprocessed—while 15 percent of their diet is protein, and 15 percent fat, he added. “You need farmed food because oftentimes you don’t have successful hunting days, so the farmed food was the food in the bank. And they would do intermitting fasting, too. These are the people with the healthiest hearts in the world,” Gupta exclaimed.

When it comes to activity, when hunters are hunting, they’re never outrunning their prey, but rather outlasting it, noted Gupta. “We found that they walked about 17,000 steps per day. But they didn’t run; they only walked. They are active, but not intensively active. They also hardly every sit—they are either lying or standing all the time. And they would get nine hours of sleep per night, waking up to the rooster’s crow. There are no devices. Again, these are the people who have the healthiest hearts in world. They don’t have a healthcare system and don’t spend a dollar on healthcare,” Gupta stated.

What’s even more interesting about this tribe is that each of its members lives with some degree of a parasitic infection, which they usually get it early in life, have a few days of illness, and then just live with these parasites in their bodies for their entire lives. “The belief is that so much of the disease we talk about—that leads to this $3.3 trillion price tag [the total cost of U.S. healthcare spending in 2016]—is actually ignited or worsened by our immune systems. So the parasitic infections could be part of the reason they are protected from all types of diseases,” Gupta offered.

Essentially, it’s living this basic, undeveloped life that “inadvertently provides them extraordinary protection against heart disease,” noted a report in HealthDay last year. “Thanks to their unique lifestyle, most Tsimane [members] have arteries unclogged by the cholesterol plaques that drastically increase the risk of heart attack and stroke in modern Americans,” Gregory Thomas, M.D., medical director of the Memorial Care Heart & Vascular Institute at Long Beach Memorial, in California, said in that report.

Tsimane tribe (source: University of New Mexico)

You might be asking what the story of the Tsimane tribe has to do with U.S. healthcare since its lifestyle would obviously never be replicated in a developed country. And while that is true, it’s tough to ignore the $1 billion per day that our healthcare system spends on heart disease—compared to the Tsimane tribe that doesn’t spend a single dime, yet has the healthiest hearts in the world.

In this sense, perhaps we can use the Tsimane story to push ourselves to develop a greater understanding of why we spend so much money on healthcare and don’t have the results to show for it. Gupta asked this $3.3 trillion-dollar question in his speech—why does healthcare in the U.S. cost so much and what do we get in return?

“If you look at the statistics, it’s not impressive. More people die from preventable disease in the U.S. than in 12 other nations. People live longer in 30 other countries compared to the U.S.—including places like Chile and Costa Rica. We still have tens of millions of people who don’t have access, and we still spend all this money on healthcare. Why?” he asked.

Gupta explained that the nation’s high healthcare costs come down to the following: high administrative costs, technology, new drugs and development, and the cost of chronic disease—the last which is incredibly self-inflicted. About 70 to 80 percent of chronic disease is self-preventable, he said.

Indeed, as most of us know, about 5 percent of the U.S. population accounts for 50 percent of the healthcare costs. These are folks who are defined by illness, not by health, Gupta stated. This is why the modern-day healthcare system has proactively taken to targeting that 5 percent to improve their chances of preventing disease and staying healthy. “Data shows that home visits, nutritional counseling, one-on-one coaching, and diligent follow-up care can go a long way in preventing someone from getting sick in the first place, and from turning a disease into something more chronic. Some of these interventions can actually reverse disease. The die is not cast,” Gupta said.

For me, Gupta’s keynote highlighted the need for efforts around value-based care, care management, and population health to be intensified. A big part of that, as noted in the speech, is addressing patients’ social and environmental factors. It’s not at all surprising to see studies such as this one from earlier this year, conducted by researchers at the University of South Florida (USF) College of Public Health, Tampa, and WellCare Health Plans, and published in Population Health Management, which found that healthcare spending is substantially reduced when people are successfully connected to social services that address social barriers, or social determinants of health, such as secure housing, medical transportation, healthy food programs, and utility and financial assistance.

And with that, there is also an enormous opportunity for data and IT to play a role. Information sharing, so that providers have access to the right information at the point of care—no matter where the patient is—will be critical to reducing unnecessary costs. As will the robust use of data analytics, so that patient care organizations can be proactive in predicting which patients are at highest risk, when they might need services, and how to intervene at the appropriate time.

But to this point, Gupta, who noted that our society can get too caught up in high-tech, also suggested that “medicine seems to play by slightly different rules when it comes to innovation as opposed to other sectors. Sometimes, innovation moves painstakingly slow in respect to medicine.” At the end of the day, he said, it will be “the innovations that make us, [as a society], healthier, happier, and connect us in frictionless ways, that will be the biggest winners.”

So, will the U.S. population suddenly turn off their iPhone alarms, wake up to the rooster’s crow, and become a hunter-gatherer society? No, I would say that’s quite unlikely to happen. But hearing stories such as the one of the Tsimane tribe might just serve as good enough motivation to bring down the astronomical and unsustainable costs of U.S. healthcare.

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