Point of Care Series: Part 1
The following story is the first installment of our three-part series on point-of-care issues. In this piece, we look at the broad trend toward improving patient safety through IT adoption. In part two, coming in September, we will study the vital area of medication safety. October will feature part three — an examination of devices that have shown to improve safety by allowing clinicians to move order entry to the point of care.
HEADLINE: Split-Screen Sensation
DECK: Patient safety moves forward in some hospitals — but, seven years after "Quality Chasm," progress is still spotty
by Mark Hagland
It really is one of those classic "glass-half-full-or-glass-half-empty" questions. Is patient safety improvement making progress in the nation's hospitals? Or do most U.S. hospitals remain mired in the old culture of reactive correction? The answer depends on where one looks and whom one asks.
The picture is mixed. On the one hand, says Carolyn Clancy, M.D., director of the Rockville, Md.-based federal Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), "We've seen some impressive momentum, where over half of the nation's hospitals are participating in the 100,000 lives campaign" of the Boston-based Institute for Healthcare Improvement (focusing on a nationwide effort to save lives through safety improvement efforts).
"And we get letters every day from hospital leaders asking us to help them improve patient safety. So awareness is way up, and certainly some early steps of activity have been made. Adoption has been slow for CPOE" (computer-based provider order entry), she acknowledges; "but what people are realizing is that the key is not just IT, but IT embedded into a culture that focuses on averting harm in every step of patient care. And that realization is becoming less unusual."
On the other hand, Paul Ehrlich, M.D., a vice president in the clinical consulting practice at Long Beach, Calif.-based First Consulting Group (FCG), says, "I don't think it's become clear to everyone yet that hospitals need to become proactive about patient safety improvement."
In fact, West Orange, N.J.-based Ehrlich, who practiced 14 years as an obstetrician/gynecologist, says, "Most hospitals are still reacting to patient safety issues as opposed to being proactive. They're reacting to activity on the part of the JCAHO (the Oakbrook Terrace, Ill.-based Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations) and various external and internal incidents, including sentinel events they're having, as opposed to determining how to be proactive in making their organizations safer."
A senior executive at JCAHO says it's important to put all this into perspective. Paul Schyve, M.D., senior vice president, says of the long journey towards improved health system patient safety, "I think we're at an interesting beginning, actually. There is pretty much a recognition now that patient safety is something that we need to focus on. If you went back before the first IOM report, that wasn't true," he says, referring to the federal Institute of Medicine's famous "Crossing the Quality Chasm" report released in November 1999. "The IOM report woke everyone up."
Now, the health care system is moving into the "hard work" of actually putting in place all the tools, including facilitative IT tools, to improve patient safety at individual hospitals and health systems.
Pioneers moving forward
There's no question, those interviewed agree, that many hospitals have either not yet begun serious patient safety improvement efforts, or are just setting onto the path. A variety of theories have been advanced for this relative slowness, including a lack of resources and conflicting organizational priorities. But a number of pioneering organizations are showing that serious gains can be made, with strong IT facilitation, in communities as far-flung as San Diego, St. Louis, and Spartanburg, S.C.
For example, at Missouri Baptist Medical Center in St. Louis, patient safety officer Nancy Kimmel, Pharm.D. can cite an impressive list of accomplishments, particularly with regard to adverse drug errors (ADEs) — one of the most important and worked-on patient safety improvement areas nationwide.
Using a variety of tools, including core electronic medical record (EMR), laboratory, and pharmacy systems from San Francisco-based McKesson Corporation, as well as a self-developed BJC medication alerts-based system called the Pharmacy Expert System, Kimmel and her colleagues have created significant advances. Those clinical information systems are, in fact, universalized across 13-hospital, St. Louis-based BJC system of which Missouri Baptist is a member.