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Report: Majority of Hackers Can Breach a Hospital’s Perimeter in Under Five Hours

April 12, 2018
by Heather Landi
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Hackers can complete an entire data breach in under 15 hours, which includes exfiltrating data, according to a recent report, and 23 percent of hackers say they can complete a breach of a hospital or healthcare organization under five hours.

In its 2018 Black Report, Nuix, a cybersecurity, risk, and compliance software company, offers a glimpse inside the minds of hackers to provide a unique perspective on the security landscape. The report also reveals a significant gap between perception and reality in cybersecurity, as most organizations’ cybersecurity postures are much more vulnerable than their leaders think, according to the report authors.

The survey reflects responses from hackers and professional penetration testers from around the globe. Penetration testers are professional hackers who operate within the boundaries of a legal statement of work that grants them permission to attack their target. The survey also included incident responders to gain their insight into various types of current attacks and organization security postures, but their responses to questions focused on hacking or motivation were not included.

Among some of the alarming results is that, across all industries, most of the professional hackers surveyed said they could bypass security systems, locate critical data, and exfiltrate that data within 15 hours. Fifteen percent said they could accomplish that in under an hour, 20 percent said it would take one to five hours, 19 percent said the task would take five to 10 hours, and 46 percent said it could be accomplished in 10 to 15 hours.

About a quarter of hackers surveyed (23 percent) said they could complete an entire breach of a hospital or healthcare organization in under five hours, while the majority (61 percent) said it could be accomplished in under 15 hours (18 percent said five to 10 hours; 20 percent said 10 to 15 hours, 23 percent said 15 to 20 hours; 11 percent said 20 to 25 hours and 5 percent said more than 25 hours).

Drilling down further into the survey results, when hackers were asked how long it takes to breach the perimeter of a hospital or healthcare organization, 15 percent said under one hour, 39 percent said under five hours, 24 percent said under 10 hours, 20 percent said under 15 hours and 2 percent said it would take more than 15 hours.

The survey asked respondents how long it took them on average to identify critical value data (CVD) once they had gained access to the target environment. The survey results show that once they have breached the perimeter, attackers can move laterally with ease to map out the target environment and find what they are looking for. Averaged across all industries, most respondents (54 percent) could find their target data within five hours.

With regard to hospitals and healthcare organizations, large numbers of respondents (38 percent) could find the data they sought in less than an hour, the same with regard to the hospitality industry (33 percent), and retail industry (30 percent). Twenty-eight percent said they could identify critical healthcare data under five hours, 23 percent said it would take between five to 10 hours to identify critical data, eight percent said 10 to 15 hours and 5 percent said more than 15 hours.

Averaged across all industries, 40 percent of respondents could exfiltrate data in less than an hour and an additional 33 percent could do so within five hours. Surveyed hackers saw the hospitals and healthcare, sports and entertainment, retail, and hospitality industries as particularly soft targets, according to the report.

Asked how long it takes to exfiltrate critical value data from a hospital or healthcare organization, half of surveyed hackers (51 percent) said it would take less than one hour. Twenty-six percent said one to five hours to exfiltrate data, 13 percent said five to 10 hours, 8 percent said 10 to 15 hours and 3 percent said more than 15 hours.

While healthcare did not fall among the three industries that hackers identified as being the easiest targets—those being food and beverage, hospitality and retail—healthcare did have below-average results as far as cybersecurity, according to the report. The report notes that healthcare fell into this category of below-average results even though healthcare organizations must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations.

“Our data makes it clear that these compliance regimes do not guarantee that a regulated entity is meeting the prescribed requirements or that the regulations are having the intended impact. I’ve said it before but it’s worth repeating: Compliance does not equal security,” the report states.

Chris Pogue, lead author of the report and Nuix’s Head of Services, Security and Partner Integration, said, “Most organizations invest heavily in perimeter defenses such as firewalls and antivirus, and these are mandatory in many compliance regimes, but most of the hackers we surveyed found these countermeasures trivially easy to bypass. If hackers can steal your data within a day but you only find out it happened months later, you’re well on the way to becoming the next big news story."

The Nuix Black Report challenges the common media narrative that data breaches are hard to prevent because cyberattacks are becoming more sophisticated. Nearly a quarter of Black Report respondents (22 percent) said they used the same attack techniques for a year or more.

“Hackers can keep using the same attack techniques because they still work—if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it,” Pogue said. “Many data breach victims believe they have suffered unprecedented and highly sophisticated cyberattacks, but they often turn out to be the result of mistakes or oversights. In the recent Equifax case, for example, it was an older system that hadn’t been patched.”

The report also dispels some common perceptions about cybersecurity and hackers, such as the perception of the teenage hacker living in a basement. Three-quarters (75 percent) of respondents are college grads and nearly one-third (32 percent) had postgraduate degrees. The majority (60 percent) had at least two security certifications, 22 percent had between three and five certifications, 8 percent had six or seven certifications and five percent had between eight and 10 certifications. The majority (57 percent) worked for medium-sized, large, or enterprise businesses.

The survey also examined hacker's motivations--86 percent said they do it, “because I like the challenge, I hack to learn.” While 35 percent said they hack for the entertainment value or to make mischief, 21 percent hack for financial gain and 6 percent hack for social or political motives. The survey also found that 1 in 4 hackers don’t actually break any laws while hacking.

 

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4.4M Patient Records Breached in Q3 2018, Protenus Finds

November 7, 2018
by Rajiv Leventhal, Managing Editor
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There were 117 disclosed health data breaches in the third quarter of 2018, leading to 4.4 million patient records breached, according to the Q3 Protenus Breach Barometer report.

Published by Protenus, a cybersecurity software company that issues a Breach Barometer report each month, the most recent data shows that although the number of incidents disclosed in Q3 decreased somewhat from Q2, the number of breached records increased from Q2 to Q3. Also, the number of affected patient records has continued to climb each quarter in 2018—from 1.13 million in Q1 to 3.14 million in Q2 to 4.4 million in Q3.

In Q3, the report noted that the single largest breach was a hacking incident affecting 1.4 million patient records that involved UnityPoint Health, an Iowa-based health system. Hackers used phishing techniques, “official-looking emails”, to gain access to the organization’s email system and capture employees’ passwords. This new incident follows one that took place at the same organization in April when 16,400 patient records were breached as a result of another phishing attack.

For incidents disclosed to HHS (the Department of Health & Human Services) or the media, insiders were responsible for 23 percent of the total number of breaches in Q3 2018 (27 incidents). Details were disclosed for 21 of those incidents, affecting 680,117 patient records (15 percent of total breached patient records). For this analysis, insider incidents are characterized as either insider-error or insider-wrongdoing. The former includes accidents and other incidents without malicious intent that could be considered “human error.” 

There were 19 publicly disclosed incidents that involved insider-error between July and September 2018. Details were disclosed for 16 of these incidents, affecting 389,428 patient records. In contrast, eight incidents involved insider-wrongdoing, with data disclosed for five of these incidents.

Notably, when comparing each quarter in 2018, there has been a drastic increase in the number of breached patient records as a result of insider-wrongdoing. In Q1 2018, there were about 4,600 affected patient records, in Q2 2018 there were just over 70,000 affected patient records, and in Q3 there were more than 290,000 affected patient records tied to insider-wrongdoing.

What’s more, the report found that hacking continues to threaten healthcare organizations, with another increase in incidents and affected patient records in the third quarter of 2018. Between July and September, there were 60 hacking incidents—51 percent of all Q3 2018 publicly disclosed incidents. Details were disclosed for 52 of those incidents, which affected almost 3.7 million patient records. Eight of those reported incidents specifically mentioned ransomware or malware, ten incidents mentioned a phishing attack, and two incidents mentioned another form of ransomware or extortion. However, it’s important to note that the number of hacking incidents and affected patient records have dropped considerably when comparing each month between July and September 2018.

Meanwhile, of the 117 health data breaches for which data was disclosed, it took an average of 402 days to discover a breach from when the breach occurred. The median discovery time was 51 days, and the longest incident to be discovered in Q3 2018 was due to insider-wrongdoing at a Virginia-based healthcare organization. This specific incident occurred when an employee accessed thousands of medical records over the course of their 15-year employment.

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Survey Reveals Disconnect Between Perception and Reality of Medical Device Security

November 6, 2018
by Heather Landi, Associate Editor
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A recent survey of healthcare IT professionals found a troubling disconnect between IT leaders’ confidence in the visibility and security of their connected medical devices and the effectiveness of legacy solutions to secure connected medical devices.

The vast majority of healthcare IT professionals (87 percent) feel confident that the connected medical devices in their hospitals are protected in case of a cyberattack. However, the survey also revealed a contradiction between the confidence that healthcare professionals have in the visibility of connected medical devices and security of their networks, and the inefficient and ineffective legacy processes many still rely on to keep them secure.

The survey from Zingbox, a provider of Internet of Things (IoT) security solutions, is based on responses from 400 U.S.-based healthcare IT decision-makers and clinical and biomedical engineers and indicates that there continues to be a widespread misconception that traditional IT security solutions can also adequately secure connected medical devices.

Seventy-nine percent of respondents say their organization has real-time information about which connected medical devices are vulnerable to cyber attacks. And, 69 percent feel traditional security solutions for laptops and PCs are adequate to secure connected medical devices.

“Most organizations are thinking about antivirus, endpoint protection and firewalls, but there are many devices — like medical monitoring equipment — and no one is thinking about securing them,” Jon Booth, Bear Valley Community Hospital District IT director and Zingbox customer, said in a statement. Additionally, as noted in a Gartner report, Market Trends: Five Healthcare Provider Trends for 2018 published in November 2017 notes: “Generally, medical devices are not replaced for at least 10 years, with many running old software that has not been updated or patched.”

And there are other challenges: the Zingbox survey revealed 41 percent of healthcare IT professionals do not have a separate or sufficient budget for securing connected devices.

When asked about inventory of connected medical devices, majority of clinical and biomedical engineers (85 percent) were confident that they have an accurate inventory of all connected medical devices even though many rely on manual audits, which are prone to human error and quickly become outdated.

What’s more, close to two-thirds (64 percent) of responses from clinical and biomedical engineers indicate reliance on some form of manual room-to-room audit or use of static database to inventory the connected devices in their organization. Just 21 percent of responses say their devices receive preventative maintenance based on device usage as opposed to some kind of fixed schedule.

The survey also shows that more than half (55 percent) of responses indicate clinical/biomedical engineers must walk over to the device or call others to check on their behalf whether a device is in-use before scheduling repairs. Many make the trip only to find out that the device is in-use by patients and must try again in the future hoping for better luck, according to the survey.

“Despite the recent progress of the healthcare industry, the survey exemplifies the continued disconnect between perception of security and the actual device protection available from legacy solutions and processes. Unfortunately, much of the current perception stems from the use of traditional solutions, processes and general confusion in the market,” Xu Zou, CEO and co-founder of Zingbox, said in a statement. “Only by adopting the latest IoT technology and revisiting decade-old processes, can healthcare providers be well prepared when the next WannaCry hits.”

 

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HHS Opens Rebranded Healthcare Cyber Center

November 2, 2018
by Heather Landi, Associate Editor
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The U.S. Department and Health and Human Services (HHS) this week officially opened the Health Sector Cybersecurity Coordination Center (HC3), designed to strengthen coordination and cybersecurity information sharing within the healthcare sector and promote cybersecurity resilience.

According to HHS officials, HC3 is an operational cybersecurity center designed to support and improve the cyber defense of the healthcare and public health sector. The center will work to cultivate cybersecurity resilience by providing timely and actionable cybersecurity intelligence to health organizations and developing strategic partnerships between these organizations.

The Administration, under President Donald Trump, has designated the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as the lead organization to combat cyber threats and develop preventive strategies across the entire economy, with HHS given the role to focus cybersecurity support on information sharing within the healthcare and public health (HPH) sector.

“HHS is proud to work with the health community to better protect Americans’ health data and confidential information,” HHS Deputy Secretary Eric Hargan said in a statement, adding that the announcement “is a recognition of the importance we place on stakeholder engagement as part of our cybersecurity work.”

Jeanette Manfra, assistant secretary for cybersecurity and communications in DHS, said in a statement that HC3 is a “vital capability for the early detection and coordination of information between the private sector and the federal government, and with cyber professionals across the federal government.”

“We believe that when a risk is shared across sectors, the only way to manage that risk successfully is to manage it collectively. We know that the majority of the cybersecurity attacks that occurred over the past year could have been prevented with quality and timely information - and the heightened importance of sharing information cannot be stressed enough,” Manfra said.

The opening of HC3 respresents the second healthcare-focused cybersecurity center in two years. In June 2017, the Healthcare Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (HCCIC) launched and was designed to focus its efforts on analyzing and disseminating cyberthreats across the healthcare industry in real time. However, the fledgling HCCIC was almost immediately mired in controversy due to abrupt changes in leadership. In just six months after HCCIC began operations, the HCCIC’s top leaders were reassigned.

In November 2017, there were reports that HCCIC's work was stalled as it was at the center of an investigation into contracting irregularities and possible fraud allegations. The cyber operations center was “paralyzed” by the removal of its top two officials, according to reports. Leo Scanlon, deputy chief information security officer at HHS, who ran the HCCIC, was put on administrative leave in September 2017  and his deputy, Maggie Amato, left the government. The HHS Office of the Inspector General then confirmed, at the time, an ongoing investigation into the reassignment of HCCIC leadership.

About a week letter, the House Committee on Energy and Commerce issued a letter saying it was examining whether HHS retaliated against two key HHS cybersecurity officials and whether those actions weakened the federal agency’s role in responding to healthcare cybersecurity incidents.

During the summer of 2017, HHS officials had touted the center’s success in light of the WannaCry ransomware attack back in March 2017, in which the U.S. healthcare system saw minimal impact. In an interview with Healthcare Informatics this past March, former HHS Deputy CISO Scanlon said the HCCIC, which played such a promising role during the WannaCry incident, had been "derailed" by the leadership reassignments.

There also were rumors back in March that the HCCIC would be rebranded and housed within Homeland Security in order to align with DHS’s information-sharing efforts. Scanlon said at the time that the effort to create a healthcare-specific cybersecurity information-sharing center was now "back to square one.”

It seems those rumors bore out as the new cyber center, HC3, is housed within DHS, whereas HCCIC, which is now gone, was intended to be a standalone entity partnering with NH-ISAC.

In the past year and a half, Congressional leaders have voiced concerns about the lack of clarity on the direction of HCCIC and HHS’ overall cybersecurity capabilities. Back in June, members of the House Energy and Commerce Committee and the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions wrote a letter to HHS leaders citing concerns about the leadership changes, specifically the reassignment of senior officials responsible for the day-to-day operation of the HCCIC. “HHS’s removal of senior HCCIC personnel has had undeniable impacts on HCCIC and HHS’s cybersecurity capabilities.”

According to HHS and DHS officials, the mission of the new cybersecurity center, HC3, is now more important than ever with the healthcare sector reporting over 400 major breaches from 2017 to 2018. “Within the HPH sector, the threats are significant and hackers covet having the potential to access sensitive medical data, damage medical equipment, secure intellectual property for financial gain, or even conduct terrorist attacks.  The HC3 provides a service to healthcare organizations that enables them to protect their assets and patients,” Administration officials said in a press release.

To address these threats to the sector, HHS has developed a “coordination center” in the HC3 to coordinate the activities across the sector and report to DHS threats, profiles, and preventive strategies. The HC3’s role is to work with the sector, including practitioners, organizations, and cybersecurity information sharing organizations to understand the threats it faces, learn the bad guys’ patterns and trends, and provide information and approaches on how the sector can better defend itself, officials said.

 

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