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At Texas Health Resources, A Strategic Approach to Evolving Cybersecurity Challenges

November 14, 2017
by Heather Landi
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With a fast-evolving cyber threat environment and a continuous flood of healthcare data breaches, chief information security officers (CISOs) at hospitals and health systems face mounting pressure to safeguard their organization’s networks as well as critical clinical and financial data. Healthcare CI­SOs face complex and challenging issues with respect to information security, including rapidly evolving mal­ware threats, insider data breaches and the increasing use of medical Internet of Things (IoT) devices across their organizations.

In addition to security-focused projects, CISOs are of­ten involved in enterprise-wide technology initiatives as well. At Texas Health Resources (THR) this past year, C-suite executive leaders have been focused on a massive data center migration initiative. THR is an integrated health system based in Arlington, Texas with more than 350 points of access, including 29 hospital locations that are owned, operated or joint-ventured with THR, 100 outpatient facilities and 250 other community ac­cess points, including the Texas Health Physicians Group clinics. THR has more than 24,000 employees and the system serves more than 7 million residents across 16 counties throughout North Texas.

The health system’s CISO, Ron Mehring, says the or­ganization is migrating data centers housed in individual hospitals to “sophisticated, advanced co-location facili­ties” and the new data centers provide increased secu­rity controls and protections.

“Throughout the whole year, our focus has been on transforming our data center, and that includes improv­ing the availability and integrity of data and overall per­formance. It also includes the security controls within the data centers, from the physical controls to environmen­tal controls, to improving the general security and tech­nologies within the data centers themselves. And that’s been a ton of heavy lifting this year,” Mehring says.

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Ron Mehring

Mehring and his team also have focused on what he refers to as “blocking and tackling improvements,” ranging from multi-factor authentication enhancements to process improvements around vulnerability identi­fication and remediation activities. “We spent a lot of time trying to improve our assessment processes to get a little bit more detailed on the way that we identify risk and the way that we articulate risk to our stakeholders in the enterprise. We focused on general improvements in those areas, but most of our efforts have really fo­cused on our data center transformation, and some of the things that orbit around that.”

And, he adds, “That’s so important for our organization as we proceed to transform ourselves as a healthcare de­livery system. It’s really setting up the playing field; setting up the infrastructure and security services to support all those future business initiatives and clinical operations.”

The Current State of Healthcare Cybersecurity

When looking at the current state of cybersecurity in the healthcare industry, current data breach reports and news reports about malware incidents paint a trou­bling picture. Cybersecurity software company Protenus, which publishes a “Breach Barometer” report ev­ery month, reported 233 total breaches in the first six months of 2017; in all of 2016, about 450 breaches were reported. The company also reports that the trend first noted in 2016 has continued, with an average of one health data breach per day. Protenus tracks breach inci­dents either disclosed to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) or to the media.

However, there are indications that healthcare provider orga­nizations have boosted their cybersecurity efforts and are responding more quickly and strategically to cyber threats. In October, FirstHealth of the Car­olinas reported that it had shut down its computer networks af­ter a threat from a new version of the WannaCry malware virus was detected. The health sys­tem reported at the time that its information system team immediately identified the threat and implemented security protocols. The health system reported that because of the quick response by the infor­mation security team, the virus did not reach any patient information, operational information or databases.

In a 2017 Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) Cybersecurity Survey, more than half of respondents (60 percent) reported their organizations em­ploy a senior information security leader, such as a CISO. What’s more, the survey results indicated that organiza­tions that employ a CISO or other senior information se­curity leader have adopted holistic cybersecurity practices.

Gauging the current state of healthcare cybersecurity, Mehring says, “Looking at it from a posture and a protec­tion perspective and when I talk to my peers, it feels to me that the water line is overall rising together. Five years ago, I think, in healthcare, what we saw is the ‘haves’ and ‘have nots’ at very dramatic levels. We had healthcare delivery systems and providers with differing levels of security, where a lot of the blocking and tackling secu­rity controls weren’t in place. There was this huge dispa­rate ecosystem, and that’s important because, especially when you get local, we all have to share; in a metroplex, all of our systems talk to each other. It’s important that we all understand that we all have to improve together.”

Mehring also says he is seeing more information shar­ing among healthcare security leaders, noting both infor­mal, local efforts as well as national efforts through cyber threat-sharing groups, such as the National Health Information Sharing and Analysis Center (NH-ISAC) and the HITRUST Alliance. In the Dallas area, one local hos­pital hosts regular summits bringing together local CISOs and security staff. Mehring says, “We share information with each other and give best practices, which is great, as when you get into the healthcare delivery ecosystem, local really matters. National is important, but when we are delivering care and sharing information, a lot of that is happening at a very local level, between health systems.”

Evolving External Threats

It’s widely known that healthcare is a prime target for hackers and cybercrime, with malware and ransomware attacks a constant concern for healthcare security lead­ers. In May, the WannaCry ransomware virus plagued the National Health Service in the United Kingdom and the NotPetya malware caused massive disruptions to multinational companies in 65 countries back in June, including health IT company Nuance Communications, which had to shut down its network.

Like many other healthcare security leaders, Mehring sees ransomware as a major threat to many industries, including healthcare, and one that will not go away any­time soon. As one silver lining, though, he also notes that security vendors are providing more robust infra­structures in response to the malware threats.

“I think a lot of people learned their lessons very quickly around ransomware and how to handle it. That includes, number one, putting the right protections in place on the front end, and if it gets in, having the right response and recovery strategy in place. We see many organizations being able to recover quickly from those types of destructive events. I think what you see is a lot of lessons learned being applied, so the impacts have gone down. But, do I think that threat exists? Absolute­ly, and it will continue to evolve.”

One way cyber threats have evolved, Mehring points out, is that hackers are starting to attack what he refers to as the "underbelly,” or the technical supply chain. In the NotPetya malware attack in June, for instance, cybersecurity experts believe that a software update mechanism of a Ukrainian tax preparation program had been compromised to spread the malware.

“When they attacked the Ukrainian application, which was associated to some U.S. companies as well as other companies, they attacked that trust that had been built with that company’s application, and they attacked, es­sentially, the update service associated with that appli­cation. When a malware gets in, with the right level of permission and the right level of access to the environ­ment, it’s going to do a little bit of harm, and depending on how it’s set up, it could do lots of harm.

He continues, “This is something that we really need to pay attention to; the vendors or software services that are integrated tightly into our healthcare delivery sys­tems. It’s probably the next attack vector in, and, unfor­tunately, it’s a great vector into an enterprise, because of the trust that we lay into those types of services.”

The speed of malware attacks is increasing as well, Mehring notes, and that puts more pressure on health­care organizations to have the right tools, techniques and processes in place to respond and recovery quickly. “The organizations that are not able to start to apply automation and orchestration into their infrastructure and services will probably see in the future how the lack of that becomes the real problem and can really impact their infrastructure.”

At Texas Health Resources, Mehring says the organi­zation’s cybersecurity strategy evolves to address these threats, with an increased focus on the security postures of its vendor partners. “You have got to ask really good questions of your vendors and how their services integrate into your environment. You need to ensure they are doing all the things that they should be doing to protect their environment, and yours, in the delivery of that service.”

He adds, ‘If you are integrating a software service into your environment, that’s managed externally by a vendor, you need to ensure you’re putting the appropriate con­trols in place so that any harm caused on their side does not impact the rest of the environment. And we do that through a lot of different ways, through appropriate pro­visioning of accessing and identity, appropriate provision­ing of network services and isolation and segmentation.”

Insiders Remain a Constant Threat

Specialist insurer Beazley reports that in the first nine months of 2017, unintended disclosures accounted for 41 percent of healthcare data breach incidents. The high level of unintended disclosure incidents remains more than dou­ble that of the second most frequent cause of loss—hack or malware (19 percent), according to the Beazley report.

At Texas Health Resources, Mehring says security leaders utilize sophisticated IT monitoring systems, such as behavioral analytics, to detect anomalous behavior as well as continuous auditing and monitoring of protected health information (PHI) within the electronic health re­cord (EHR) and data loss prevention technologies.

There are also non-technical processes and programs that should be used, Mehring points out, such as a hot­line that employees can use to report anomalous behav­ior. “You need a good hotline that allows the reporting of things, and from that hotline, you need to make sure the information is acted upon and communicated to the right department, whether its HR or it’s the legal or se­curity team,” he says.

At a high level, Mehring says it’s critical that the CISO have strong relationships with human resources and compliance leaders within the organization to de­velop processes and policies to identify and address insider threat actions. “From a policy perspective, it’s about who is going to own the policy for that type of data and who sets the rules?” A transparent sanction­ing program also is key so employees are aware that activities are being monitored. “Employees need to know that there is a process in place for accountability when something is inappropriately accessed or inap­propriately shared,” he says.

Medical IoT and Cybersecurity

For many hospital and health system CISOs, the gover­nance of medical device programs is the next frontier in IT security. Healthcare provider organizations are now managing an increasing number of digitally connected devices, and, as more devices come online, the cyberse­curity risk increases and intensifies in complexity.

“I think most of us are still coming to terms with how we characterize IoT. Is a medical device an IoT, is a re­frigerator that stores blood an IoT? Is a monitor that is displaying our marketing information in our hospital, is that IoT? If somebody gets a wearable, is that an IoT? And the answer to that is probably, yes, to all of that in some way,” Mehring says.

A critical, foundational step to managing medical de­vices is developing a comprehensive inventory and asset identification of all digitally connected devices within an organization, he notes. “Then you have to start develop­ing at least some internal rules of how we characterize those types of IoT things and make sure we can differen­tiate between those different asset types because they are going to get different protection profiles. A medical device is going to get a different protection profile than a monitor on the wall in a hospital passageway that’s providing branding information,” he notes.

Understanding how various medical devices communi­cate, both inside and outside the hospital environment, also is a vital step in maintaining and protecting devices. “Developing good data flow mapping and understand­ing the way that devices communicate is very important. That allows you to put in better protection mechanisms once you understand how things communicate with each other. You can ensure that the appropriate communica­tion security strategy is put in place around those devic­es,” Mehring says.

At THR, health system C-suite leaders have long been aware that cybersecurity is not just an IT problem, but a corporate-wide risk management issue, and one that requires an evolving, strategic approach to address the changing threat environment.

 


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Six Lessons From Boston Children’s ‘Hacktivist’ Attack

October 17, 2018
by David Raths, Contributing Editor
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CIO Daniel Nigrin, M.D., says hospitals must prepare for DDoS and ransomware

Most health system CIOs have heard about the 2014 attack on Boston Children’s Hospital by a member or members of the activist hacker group Anonymous. The hospital was forced to deal with a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack as well as a spear phishing campaign. Yesterday, as part of the Harvard Medical School Clinical Informatics Lecture Series, the hospital’s senior vice president and CIO Daniel Nigrin, M.D., discussed six lessons learned from the attack.

Although the cyber-attack took place four years ago, there have been some recent developments. The attack was undertaken to protest the treatment of a teenager, Justina Pelletier, in a dispute over her diagnosis and custody between her parents and the hospital. In August 2018 Martin Gottesfeld, 32, was convicted of one count of conspiracy to damage protected computers and one count of damaging protected computers. U.S. District Court Judge Nathaniel Gorton scheduled sentencing for Nov. 14, 2018. Gottesfeld was charged in February 2016. 

 According the U.S. Department of Justice, Gottesfeld launched a massive DDOS attack against the computer network of the Boston Children’s Hospital. He customized malicious software that he installed on 40,000 network routers that he was then able to control from his home computer. After spending more than a week preparing his methods, on April 19, 2014, he unleashed a DDOS attack that directed so much hostile traffic at the Children’s Hospital computer network that he temporarily knocked Boston Children’s Hospital off the Internet. 

 In his Oct. 17 talk, Nigrin said cyber criminals still see healthcare as a soft target compared to other industries. “The bottom line is that in healthcare, we have not paid attention to cybersecurity,” he said. “In the years since this attack, we have seen ransomware attacks that have brought hospital systems to their knees. We have to pay more attention and invest more in terms of dollars and technical people, but it really does extend to entire organizations — educating people about what a phishing attack is, what a social engineering attack is. These need to be made a priority.”

He offered six lessons learned from Boston Children’s experience:  

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1. DDoS countermeasures are critical. No longer can healthcare organizations assume that a DDoS attacks are things that only occur against corporate entities, he said. “Prior to this event, I had never thought about the need to protect our organization against a DDoS attack,” he said. “I will submit that the vast majority of my CIO colleagues were in the same boat. And that was wrong. I think now we have gotten this understanding.”

2.  Know what depends on the internet. Having a really detailed understanding of what systems and processes in your organization depend on internet access is critical, Nigrin stressed. You also mush have good mitigation strategies in place to know what to do if you lose internet access — whether it is because you have a network outage due to a technical issue or a malicious issue. “As healthcare has become more automated and dependent on technology, these things are crippling events. You have got to know how you are going to deal with it ahead of time. Figuring it out on the fly is not going to work.”

3. Recognize the importance of email. Email may be seen as old-school, Nigrin noted, but it is still the primary method to communicate, so you have to think about how you can communicate and get the word out in scenarios where you don’t have email or lose voice communication. “In our case, we were super-lucky because we had just deployed a secure texting platform, so we could do HIPAA-compliant texting, and when our email was down, that was how we communicated, and it was very effective,” he explained.

4. Push through security initiatives – no excuses anymore.  Because he is a doctor himself, Nigrin feels OK picking on doctors about security. Historically they have always pushed back on security measures such as dual-factor authentication. He paraphrases them saying “Come on, Dan, that is an extra 10 seconds; I have to carry a secure ID, or you have to send me a text message on my phone. It is a pain. I don’t want to do it. I am the highest-paid employee in your organization and that is time better spend on something else.” But Nigrin argues that we can’t afford to think like that anymore. He used the Anonymous attack as an opportunity to push through four or five security initiatives within the next two to three months when he had everyone’s attention. “The platform was burning, and the board of trustees was willing to expend the money to pay for it all. They all of a sudden recognized the risk.”

5. Securing audio- and teleconference meetings. Nigrin said this topic wouldn’t have occurred to Boston Children’s until they were warned by the FBI. “The FBI told us about an attack that affected them when they were dealing with Anonymous. When Anonymous was attacking the FBI, the FBI convened internal conference calls on how to deal with it. Anonymous had already breached their messaging platform and intercepted the calendar invites that invited everyone to dial in. Anonymous basically was called into the meeting. Within 30 minutes of one of those meetings, the entire audio transcript of the conference call was posted to YouTube. “So we took heed of that and made sure that when we had conference calls, we sent out PINs over our secure texting platform,” he said.

6. Separating signal from noise. During the attack, Boston Children’s set up a command center and told employees: if you see something, say something. “We didn’t know what attack was coming next. We were flying blind,” Nigrin said. “We started to get lots of calls into our command center with reports of things that seemed somewhat suspicious,” he remembers. People got calls on their cell phone with a recorded message saying your bank account has been compromised. Press 1 to talk to someone to deal with it. “Today we would recognize this as some type of phishing scam and hang up,” he said, “but at the time it was sort of new. People started calling us and we didn’t know if this was Anonymous trying to get into the bank accounts of our senior clinicians. Was it part of the attack? It was tough for us to detect signal from noise.”

In the Q&A after his presentation, listeners were curious about how much the incident cost the hospital. Nigrin said there two big costs incurred: One was the technology it had to deploy in an emergent way to do DDOS protection and penetration testing. The other was revenue lost from philanthropic donations. Together they were close to $1 million.

Another person asked if the hospital had cyber insurance. Nigrin said they did, but when they read the fine print it said they were covered only if they were breached and technically they were never breached, so the insurance company was reluctant to pay. Although they eventually got compensated for a good share of it, the hospital also made sure to update its policy.

Still another attendee asked Nigrin if ransomware attacks were still targeting hospitals. He said they definitely were. “Think about community hospitals just squeaking by on their budgets,” he said. “They don’t have millions to spend, yet their data is valuable on the black market. Attackers recognize we are dead in the water as entities if we don't have these systems. We have important data and will do anything to get our systems back up and running.”

Nigrin said even large health systems can be vulnerable because some technology they deploy is run by third-party vendors who haven’t upgraded their systems. An example, he said, might be technology to record videos in the operating room setting. Some vendors, he said, are not accustomed to thinking about security. They are unable to update their software so it works on more modern operating systems. That leaves CIOs with a tough choice. “We can shut off the functionality or take the risk of continuing to use outdated and unpatched operating systems. Those vendors now have woken up and realize they have to pay more attention.”

 

 


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Anthem Agrees to Record Payment—$16M—for Largest U.S. Health Data Breach

October 16, 2018
by Heather Landi, Associate Editor
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Anthem, Inc., the second largest health insurance company in the U.S., has agreed to pay $16 million to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights (OCR) to settle potential Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy and Security Rules violations in the largest U.S. health data breach in history.

In early 2015, Anthem, based in Indianapolis, was hit with a series of cyberattacks that led to an unprecedented health data breach that exposed the electronic protected health information (PHI) of almost 79 million people.

The $16 million settlement is a record HIPAA settlement that eclipses the previous high of $5.55 million paid to OCR in 2016, according to a press release from OCR. As part of the settlement, Anthem also agreed to take substantial corrective action.

Anthem is an independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association operating throughout the United States and is one of the nation’s largest health benefits companies, providing medical care coverage to one in eight Americans through its affiliated health plans.  This breach affected electronic protected health information (ePHI) that Anthem, Inc. maintained for its affiliated health plans and any other covered entity health plans.

As reported by Healthcare Informatics Feb. 5, 2015, the payer announced details of the breach late Wednesday (Feb. 4) in a letter from President and CEO, Joseph R. Swedish. He said that Anthem was the target of a “very sophisticated external cyber attack.” The hackers gained access to current and former members’ names, birthdays, medical IDs/social security numbers, street addresses, email addresses and employment information, and income data. Anthem says that credit card and medical information, such as claims, test codes, and diagnostic codes were not compromised.”

On March 13, 2015, Anthem filed a breach report with the HHS Office for Civil Rights detailing that, on January 29, 2015, they discovered cyber-attackers had gained access to their IT system via an undetected continuous and targeted cyberattack for the apparent purpose of extracting data, otherwise known as an advanced persistent threat attack.  After filing their breach report, Anthem discovered cyber-attackers had infiltrated their system through spear phishing emails sent to an Anthem subsidiary after at least one employee responded to the malicious email and opened the door to further attacks.

According to OCR, the agency’s investigation revealed that between December 2, 2014 and January 27, 2015, the cyber-attackers stole the ePHI of almost 79 million individuals, including names, social security numbers, medical identification numbers, addresses, dates of birth, email addresses, and employment information.

“In addition to the impermissible disclosure of ePHI, OCR’s investigation revealed that Anthem failed to conduct an enterprise-wide risk analysis, had insufficient procedures to regularly review information system activity, failed to identify and respond to suspected or known security incidents, and failed to implement adequate minimum access controls to prevent the cyber-attackers from accessing sensitive ePHI, beginning as early as February 18, 2014,” according to the OCR press release.

In the Healthcare Informatics story at the time of the breach, reported by Gabriel Perna, Anthem faced criticism from industry observers for its lack of encryption. Trent Telford, CEO of Reston, Va.-based Covata and a member of Anthem, said, at the time, that the company was irresponsible for not protecting the data.

“We do not know what they were after and we do not know what they plan to do with the data—what we do know is that they were after the data itself and it was left exposed and unsecured. The data was not encrypted making it a valuable target for thieves,” he said in a statement that was quoted in the story. “It is irresponsible for businesses not to encrypt the data. We have to assume the thieves are either in the house or are going to break in—they will always build a taller ladder to climb over your perimeter security - we must protect the data itself.

In addition to the $16 million settlement, Anthem will undertake a robust corrective action plan to comply with the HIPAA Rules.  The resolution agreement and corrective action plan can be accessed here.

 

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Minnesota DHS Acknowledges Increase in Targeted Phishing Attacks

October 15, 2018
by Rajiv Leventhal, Managing Editor
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Two phishing attacks on employees at the Minnesota Department of Human Services (DHS) resulted in the possible leakage of about 21,000 Minnesotans’ personal information.

The state health agency issued a notice last week that explained over the last several months, several phishing campaigns have targeted Minnesota’s executive agencies, including DHS. Two of these attacks were deemed “successful,” in that hackers—once in June and another time in July—were able to gain access to the state email accounts of two DHS employees, using these accounts to send out spam emails. The agency’s IT department didn’t find out about the attacks until August, officials said.

According to DHS, the two email accounts contained information about some people who have interacted with DHS, including the Minnesota citizens who were notified. Examples of the type of information found in the email accounts at the time they were compromised include: first and last names, dates of birth, Social Security numbers, addresses, telephone numbers, medical information, educational records, employment records, and/or financial information, officials noted.

The agency did add in its notice, “We currently have no evidence that this information was actually viewed, downloaded, or misused.”

According to a report in the Minnesota Star Tribune, this is just the latest cyberattack on Minnesota’s state agencies, “which fend off about 3 million hacking attempts daily, state officials have said. In fact, attacks are increasing, said Aaron Call, the chief information security officer for Minnesota IT Services, which provides technology services to state executive agencies,” according to that report.

In fact, in just the past nine months, “more than 700 security incidents have been reported affecting state agencies, Call said, adding that the attacks are becoming ‘more pervasive and more sophisticated,’” according to the Star Tribune report.

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